LEARNING DIFFICULTIES

In every school class there are a number of pupils who face considerable difficulties in the educational process which significantly affect their learning, performance and behaviour. These difficulties are evident in the educational process and significantly affect learning, performance and behaviour and do not manifest themselves in the same way in children (Tzivinikou, 2015). But what do we mean by Learning Difficulties?It is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders that result in difficulties in learning acquisition, specifically in listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning and learning skills (Hammill, 1990). These are divided into Special and General difficulties..

In general difficulties, the child shows a delay in the acquisition of knowledge due to endogenous factors such as mental retardation, sensory problems, psychomotor retardation, emotional disorders and behavioural problems or exogenous factors such as cultural retardation, insufficient teaching.

On the other hand, special learning difficulties include dyslexia, dysgraphia and, dyscalculia where these difficulties are present in the child, but the child does not present mental, psychomotor, emotional or other problems in development. Despite this, they cannot benefit from standard school teaching and face difficulties in various learning-cognitive achievements (Bondi, 2013).

A correct and valid diagnosis is made by a qualified special educator who, through certified tests such as the Athena Test or informal evaluative tests, offers a complete evaluation and formulates a personalized programme of corrective treatment. The aim of these programmes is to improve the child’s abilities in an alternative way, and to facilitate the processing of information that is difficult for them. It is also considered necessary to teach techniques that help develop skills and strengthen strong points to improve the child’s mental state and self-image.